Friction is a force between two surfaces that are sliding, or trying to slide, across each other. For example, when you try to push a book along the floor, friction makes this difficult.

Friction always works in the direction opposite to the direction in which the object is moving, or trying to move. Friction always slows a moving object down.

The amount of friction depends on the materials from which the two surfaces are made. The rougher the surface, the more friction is produced. Friction also produces heat. If you rub your hands together quickly, you will feel them get warmer.

Friction can be a useful force because it prevents our shoes slipping on the pavement when we walk and stops car tyres skidding on the road. When you walk, friction is caused between the tread on shoes and the ground. This friction acts to grip the ground and prevent sliding.

Sometimes we want to reduce friction. For example, we use oil to reduce the friction between the moving parts inside a car engine. The oil holds the surfaces apart and can flow between them. The reduced friction means there is less wear on the car’s moving parts and less heat produced.

Ice causes very little friction, which is why it is easy to slip over on an icy day.

However, this is a good thing for ice skating and sledging.

Cohesive ties reading lesson

Cohesive ties are used to link or ‘tie’ ideas together.

We use pronouns to help us link the ideas.

Pronouns help us refer backwards to a noun that has already been introduced.

It saves us from repeating the noun.

E.g. The ball was passed to Kim. Kim shot at goal.
The ball was passed to Kim. She shot at goal.
























Look for the cohesive ties in the text…



Family History Research Project

This term we will be completing an investigation into our own family history!

Your task is to find out about your family’s immigration story.  For some of you, your parents or grandparents may have been the ones to immigrate to Australia. For others it will be someone further back in your family’s history. Students of indigenous background can research their family story to share with the class.

We will be working on this project at school, and in class. Some of the information will need to be collected at home (interview, biography information, artefacts, recipes). We will have time at school to work on researching the country, finding the flag and images, and finding maps. We will also have time to work on putting it together into a poster. If some aspects don’t get finished at school, they may need to be followed up at home.

I am looking forward to the chance to find out more about all of your families’ backgrounds!

You can download a copy of the project information here: term 1 2018 research task_family immigration story-29nrsh0


3/4 Home Reading Expectations – Term One!

Below are the homework expectations for 3/4 students for 2018, other elements may be added over the course of the year.

3/4 Home Reading Expectations

  • Reading at least 20 minutes each day
  • Reading to be logged in diary each day (Monday to Friday), on the right hand page.
  • A parent is to sign or initial to show that reading has been done
  • Students are responsible for maintaining reading log

Reading log should include the following information:

[Time spent reading] [Book title, Pages or chapters read] [Easy,Just Right or Too Hard] [Parent’s signature]


20 mins Charlotte’s Web, Pages 35-58 JR J. Smith


3/4 Home Writing Expectations 

  • The following two activities should occur once a week and each take no more than 20 minutes each
  • Work to be placed in homework book , reading response on the left hand page.
  • Students are responsible for maintaining homework book

Word work on the right hand page:

New Word_______________________

This word means ______________________________________________

I can use this word in a sentence. _________________________________________________________

Synonym – A word that means something similar is _________________________________

Word connection – Words that have similar parts, words that have this word inside it. _____________________

Reading Response on the left hand page:

1st Paragraph: Recount of what you have read.

Recounts are a way of retelling important parts of what you have read. When you are planning your recount, think about the important and interesting parts. Recounts are usually written in the order in which they happened. This is called chronological order.

To do this you will have to use time connectives such as: firstly, next, then, after that,

Thinks to remember are:

  • Are the events in time order?
  • Is it in the past tense?
  • Does it use time connectives? e.g. firstly, next, then, after that, meanwhile, eventually, later, finally

2nd Paragraph: Personal response to what you have read.

That is really what reading is all about – reacting to what is being said and to how the author says it! You relate the ideas, feelings and events in a passage to your own ideas, feelings and experiences. You also record your personal response to what you have read.

Thinks to remember are:

  • What connections did I make?
  • How do I feel about what I read?

1 2 3